Sociodemographic qualities integrated racial thinking-group (light otherwise non-white elizabeth.grams. black colored, brown, purple, otherwise indigenous), host to house (metropolitan or rural), education (0–4, 5–8, 9–eleven, otherwise ? several ages), and you can month-to-month home earnings for each and every capita in tertiles (reasonable, center, or highest). Brand new urban–rural group was according to the tips employed by new Brazilian Institute off Geography and Analytics (within the Portuguese, IBGE) when you look at the 2010 population census of administrative limitations set out of the regional guidelines. Contained in this for each and every municipality’s limitations, this type of local legislation expose an imaginary line called “urban edge”. The latest census tracts discovered inside “urban edge” is termed urban, whereas the remaining portion is appointed outlying. Another guidance was obtained as a result of a face-to-deal with interview from the participant’s home.
Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight ( 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (
Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p
Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).
The advantages of your own study participants because of the sex is visible during the Desk step 1. In sexes, very players was basically non-white, lived-in the brand new town, had 0–cuatro several years of education, and displayed improved hips width. Towards Bmi, fat was the most common class for males (42.9%), while heavy and you may obesity got almost comparable wavelengths for women (thirty six.9% and you can thirty five.4%, respectively). From persistent disease, 49.1% away from users reported which have a healthcare medical diagnosis regarding arterial hypertension, 17.4% of diabetes mellitus, eleven.5% of osteoporosis, seven.4% regarding cardio ailment (angina, myocardial young Moldovan ladies infarction, and you can cardiovascular system incapacity), and you can 5.7% off breathing ailment (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).